Clinical Pathology at UVM Medical Center


The Chemistry section is a large area of the Clinical Laboratory which houses both the High Volume and the Special Chemistry testing areas. The diagnostic testing performed in this section is a mix of highly automated assays and more specialized manually performed tests. A recent addition to the department is the Vitros Automation Solutions System which includes automated sample handling modules and a rack delivery system, both which increase efficiency and improve area turn around times.

The High Volume area operates 24-7 and analyzes hundreds of samples per day. Assays include:

  • Complete metabolic panels
  • Thyroid assays
  • Lipid panels
  • Liver panels
  • Cardiac markers
  • Arterial and venous blood gas measurements
  • Fluid osmolality
  • Urinalysis
  • Urine drugs of abuse screening

The Special Chemistry area operates Mon-Fri, 8 am-430 pm, with the exception of a few assays which are available via STAT requests. The testing mix in this area includes:

  • Hepatitis and HIV(4th generation) screening, Hepatitis C by PCR, HIV Quantitation by PCR
  • Endocrine testing
  • Fertility hormone levels
  • Tumor marker assays(PSA, CEA, Ca125, C199, C2729)
  • Whole Blood Lead quantitation
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Immunosuppressant drug monitoring
  • Volatile screen by GLC
  • Serum, urine, and hemoglobin electrophoresis
  • A variety of other viral and infectious disease markers including LYME antibody


Chemistry Medical Director: Clayton Wilburn, MD
Manager: Monica Sullivan, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Judy Schwenn, MSA, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist High Volume Chemistry-1: Ashley Holtz, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Special Chemistry-2: Jocelyn Stocker, MT (ASCP)


The Coagulation and Special Coagulation sections are one of the region's foremost resources for coagulation studies. State of the art tests performed enhance diagnostic capabilities for congenital and aquired bleeding disorders, hyper coagulable evaluations, platelet disorders, and autoimmune coagulation disorders. The services provided by our laboratory support the Thrombosis and Hemostasis Program and our Hemophilia Treatment Center.

  • Routine coagulation including Protime, PTT, Fibrinogen, D-Dimer, and Mixing Studies
  • Therapeutic monitoring for low molecular weight and unfractionated heparin
  • Advanced coagulation testing including: coagulation factors, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity and thrombin time
  • Bethesda assays (measure the amount of factor specific inhibitor)
  • Advanced Hypercoagulability studies including: antithrombin III activity, functional protein C and protein S activity
  • Platelet dysfunction testing (PFA, platelet aggregation and secretion, platelet mapping)
  • Lupus anticoagulant cascade to detect antiphospholipid antibodies and interference
  • Use the thrombelastograph (TEG) analyzer to assist in the assessment of patient clinical hemostasis conditions in the operating room by providing a live quantitative  and qualitative indication of the coagulation state of a blood sample


Coagulation Medical Director: Andrew Goodwin, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Lisa Reste, MT (ASCP)
Coagulation Technical Specialist: Kristin Lundy, CLS


Cytogenetics is the study of human chromosomes. Chromosome analysis provides an overview of the genome and the ability to identify chromosome rearrangements and numeric abnormalities. Karyotyping is essential in diagnosis and classification of both constitutional disorders and many malignancies. Chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis are available for peripheral or cord blood, bone marrow, solid tumors, lymph nodes, fine needle aspirates and fetal tissue (products of conception, fascia).

The Cytogenetics Laboratory is open Monday - Friday 8:00 am - 4:30 pm and Saturday 8:00 am - 12:00 pm.


  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization for a variety of constitutional and neoplastic conditions

Peripheral Blood Analysis

  • Evaluation of a couple with recurrent miscarriage or infertility
  • Evaluation of parents of an offspring with a chromosome abnormality
  • Evaluation of a child with suspected aneuploidy, such as Turner Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome

Cancer Analysis

  • Evaluation of Lymphomas, Leukemia, and other hematologic disorders
  • Evaluation of solid tumors, especially sarcomas, renal cell carcinomas, and lipomas

Products of Conception/Stillbirth Analysis

  • Recurrent Miscarriage
  • Fetal death


Cytogenetics Medical Director: Juli-Anne Gardner, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Paulette Hammond, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist: Catherine Buck, CG (ASCP)

Flow Cytometry

Flow Cytometry allows for the simultaneous multiparametric analysis for the qualitative measurement of the biological and physical properties of cells. Our section performs test such as Lymphocyte Subset Analysis (T-cell, B-cell, and NK subsets) which may be used as aids to evaluate the immune competency underlying known or unknown disease states and to monitor lymphocyte levels following organ transplantation. We also perform a test to monitor CD20 depletion in Rituximab therapy. Flow Cytometry also performs leukemia and lymphoma immunophenotyping to aid in the diagnosis of hematologic malignancy. CD34 Stem Cell Enumeration is also performed on peripheral blood and apheresis samples in the setting of stem cell transplantation.

  • Leukemia/Lymphoma Panels
  • T-Cell Subset Analysis
  • T-Cell, B-Cell, and NK Subset analysis
  • Absolute CD3 Monitoring
  • CD1920 Panel for Rituximab Monitoring
  • CD34 Stem Cell Enumeration


Flow Cytometry Medical Director: Katherine Devitt, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Lisa Reste, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Flow Cytometry: Amanda Chamberlain, MT (ASCP)


The Clinical Hematology Laboratory provides many routine and advanced services. We work closely with our attending pathologists and residents to aid in the diagnosis of hematologic disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell disease, and leukemia. We strive to provide high quality service for our hospital and others in the region and work closely with the Hematology/Oncology Clinic.

  • Routine hematology testing including complete blood counts, blood cell differentials, sedimentation rates, and bone marrow processing and staining
  • Body fluid analysis and cell counts
  • Cerebrospinal fluid cell counts
  • Differentials are performed on slides of peripheral blood, body fluids, and cerebrospinal fluids which are examined under the microscope to detect abnormal white blood cells and /or red blood cells and cell morphology
  • Screening tests for sickle cell disease and sperm screens
  • Manual hematology testing which includes manual white blood cell counts, manual platelet counts, crystal analysis for synovial fluids and spun hematocrits
  • Kleihauer-Betke Test (quantitates fetal/maternal hemorrhage)
  • Lamellar Body Counts (indicator of fetal lung maturity)


Hematopathology Medical Director: John Lunde, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Lisa Reste, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Hematopathology: Russell Brown, MT (ASCP)


The Immunology Laboratory performs tests that aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune and infectious disease. Methodologies utilized include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence Assays (IFA). We are a fully automated and integrated Immunology Laboratory. For IFA we utilize the QUANTA-Lyser automated IFA analyzer platform, the NOVA View automated digital IFA microscope, and the QUANTA Link software which provides full traceability of patient samples from processing through reporting and significantly reduces hands-on time and improves workflow efficiencies. For ELISA we utilize the DSX which is a high-performance walk-away ELISA processing system.

Autoimmune Disease Testing

  • Anti-Nuclear Antibody (IFA)
  • Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (IFA
  • Anti-Cardiolipin IgG and IgM (ELISA)
  • Anti ds-DNA IgG (ELISA)
  • Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA (ELISA)
  • Anti-SSA, Anti-SSB, Anti Sm, and Anti RNP IgG (ELISA)

Infectious Disease Testing

  • QuantiFERON-TB Gold (ELISA)
  • H. Pylori Stool Antigen (ELISA)


Immunology Medical Director: Clayton Wilburn, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Lisa Reste, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Immunology: Amanda Chamberlain, MT (ASCP)


The faculty of the Medical Microbiology Laboratory conducts and interprets testing for patients with viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections at the University of Vermont Medical Center. In addition, we serve as a resource to hospitals in the University of Vermont healthcare network as well as outpatient facilities.

We provide consulting services and work closely with our clinicians to ensure appropriate test utilization and the acquisition of quality specimens. If we cannot perform a test in our laboratory, we ensure shipment of specimens to reference labs in a timely fashion.

In addition to clinical testing, we are involved in research, the training of infectious disease fellows, medical students, pathology residents, dermatology fellows and bio-medical technology students from the University of Vermont. Services include:

  • Identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with appropriate susceptibility testing
  • Screening for Methicillin resistant Staphylococci
  • Bacterial PCR testing for Bordetella pertussis, bacterial enteric pathogens, Group B strep, C. difficile
  • "Special Microbiology" testing includes Virology PCR for respiratory viruses, Herpes Simplex 1 & 2, Varicella Zoster, and Cytomegalovirus, HPV DNA, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea RNA by Transcription Mediated Amplification. Mycology (culture, smear, Cryptococcal antigen), Mycobacteriology (culture, smear and DNA probes for culture confirmation), and Parasitology (routine, antigen detection, blood parasite exams, arthropod and worm identification)
  • Ongoing collaborative research with pharmaceutical companies, diagnostic companies, and other universities
  • Regional reference testing for esoteric Microbiology


Microbiology Medical Director: Christina Wojewoda, MD
Manager: Monica Sullivan, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Roberta Francis, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Microbiology-1: Debra Reardon, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Microbiology-2: Sharon Weisburgh, MT (ASCP)

Night Testing

The night shift in the laboratory is staffed by 4 -5 technologists each night. these technologists are responsible for a wide variety of testing in Blood Bank, Chemistry, Hematology, and Microbiology. Unlike other areas of the laboratory where technologists generally perform testing in one area, the night technologists are able to work in multiple areas and often spend time in many areas in one night.

  • Basic chemistry analysis
  • Basic hematology and coagulation analysis
  • therapeutic drug monitoring on ED patient and inpatients
  • urinalysis
  • Special coagulation testing and support UVMMC being a hemophilia treatment center
  • Appropriately analyze positive blood cultures in order to report bacteremia to clinicians ASAP
  • Flu/RSV testing
  • Wide variety of Blood Bank testing necessary to support a level I trauma center


Nights Medical Director: Andrew Goodwin, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Judy Schwenn, MSA, MT (ASCP)
Charge Technologist Nights: Leigh Guerin, MT (ASCP) 


The Phlebotomy section is committed to providing the highest quality speicmen collection services to the community. We offer a variety of locations throughout Chittenden County for your convenience. Our nationally certified staff are trained to collect blood and other specimens from patients of all ages in accordance with Clinical Laboratory Standards.

Specific Services

Questions & Answers

Q. Do I need an appointment?
A. No

Q. Do I need orders from my doctor?
A. Yes

Q. My doctor is not a UVM Medical Center Provider, can I still have my blood drawn here?
A. Yes! We are able to collect samples ordered by any provider.


Medical Director: Clayton Wilburn, MD
Manager: Monica Sullivan, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor Inpatient Phlebotomy: Michele Baker, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor Outpatient Phlebotomy: Susan Antell, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Phlebotomy: Leah Briggs, PBT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Phlebotomy: Amber Foote, PBT (ASCP)

Specimen Receiving

Patient samples from physician offices in Chittenden County and hospitals from Vermont, New York, and New Hampshire arrive in our lab to be triaged and processed. Laboratory Specimen Processing Technicians triage, deliver, unpack, and accession patient samples in the computer system. Samples are processed and sent to the appropriate laboratory areas to be tested.

Specific Services

  • Triage, deliver, unpack, accession, and prepare patient samples for testing
  • Responsible for selecting the correct patient, ordering tests, and bar code labeling, and processing patient samples
  • Load patient samples onto the Ortho TCA track system to be run by Ortho Vitros Chemistry Analyzer and/or Sysmex Hematology Analyzer
  • Send out patient samples to specialized testing facilities such as Aspenti Health, Mayo Clinical Laboratories, and many other accredited reference laboratories
  • Handle approximately 90,000 patient tubes per month


Medical Director: Clayton Wilburn, MD
Manager: Monica Sullivan, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: ,Cindy Cruickshank,MT (ASCP)
Charge Technologist: Elizabeh Manning, MT (ASCP)

Transfusion Medicine

The Transfusion Medicine section is comprised of Blood Bank and Stem Cell Processing. The Blood Bank performs compatibility testing of blood and its components between donor and recipient for transfusion. Testing is performed using automated gel-technology and manual methods. The blood Bank is also responsible for patient blood management and blood inventory management, transfusing approximately 10,000 products a year. The Stem Cell area focuses on the processing of autologous stem cell collections for cellular therapy. The Blood Bank supports different areas of medicine including trauma, surgery, maternal-fetal-medicine, neonatal ICU, dialysis, and Hematology/Oncology. Blood Bank and Stem Cell are accredited by the FDA, College of American Pathologists, AABB, and FACT. Blood Bank services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Blood Products

  • Red Blood Cells
  • Plasma
  • Cryoprecipitate
  • Platelets

Transfusion Medicine Services

  • Red blood cell typing
  • Detection of antibodies to red blood cell antigens
  • Compatibility testing
  • Maternal-fetal testing
  • Direct antibody testing
  • Autologous stem cell processing and storage for re-infusion


Transfusion Medicine Medical Director: Sarah Harm, MD
Manager: Cindy Nelson, MT (ASCP)
Supervisor: Paulette Hammond, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Blood Bank: Lynn Griswold, MT (ASCP)
Technical Specialist Blood Bank and Stem Cell: Raymond Bissonnette, MT (ASCP)

Laborarory Contact Information

If you have any questions about Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, please contact Laboratory Customer Service, at 847-5121 or 1-800-991-2799. University of Vermont Medical Center, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine –MP-103, Burlington VT, 05401<

To visit the Laboratory Test Catalog, Click Here.

Licensure and Accreditations

	  	  Vlada A. Alexeeva, MD
Vlada A. Alexeeva, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Abiy B. Ambaye, MD
Anatomic Pathology
Agnes Balla, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Jason D. Brazelton, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Ronald J. Bryant, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Martin C. Chang, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Deborah L. Cook, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Mark K. Fung, MD, PhD
Clinical Pathology
Blood Banking/Transfusion Medicine
Juli-Anne Gardner, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Pamela C. Gibson, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Andrew J. Goodwin, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
	  	  Erica R. Heinrich, MD
Erica R. Heinrich, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Alexandra N. Kalof, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Pooria Khoshnoodi, MD
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Jacqueline Poston, MD
Medical Oncology