What is metabolic syndrome?
Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that may include too much fat around the waist, elevated blood pressure, high triglycerides, elevated blood sugar, and low HDL cholesterol.
Together, this group of health problems increases your risk of heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.
This syndrome raises your risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). It also increases your risk for diabetes.
What causes it?
Metabolic syndrome is caused by an unhealthy lifestyle that includes eating too many calories, being inactive, and gaining weight, particularly around your waist. This lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance, a condition in which the body is unable to respond normally to insulin. If you have insulin resistance, your body cannot use insulin properly, and your blood sugar will begin to rise. Over time, this can lead to type 2 diabetes.
What puts you at risk?
The things that make you more likely to develop metabolic syndrome include:
- Insulin resistance.
This means that your body cannot use insulin properly.
- Abdominal obesity.
This means having too much fat around your waist.
Your chances of developing metabolic syndrome increase as you get older.
- Lack of exercise.
If you do not exercise, you are more likely to be obese and develop metabolic syndrome.
- Hormone imbalance.
A hormone disorder such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition in which the female body produces too much of certain hormones, is associated with metabolic syndrome.
- Family history of type 2 diabetes.
Having parents or close relatives with diabetes is associated with metabolic syndrome.
- Race and ethnicity.
African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders are at higher risk than whites for type 2 diabetes.
How is it diagnosed?
Your doctor can diagnose metabolic syndrome with a physical exam, your medical history, and some simple blood tests.
You may be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome if you have three or more of these risk factors:
- Abdominal obesity (waist measurement).
Men: 40 in. (102 cm) or more
Women: 35 in. (88 cm) or more
150 mg/dL or higher, or taking medicine for high triglycerides
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Men: Less than 40 mg/dL
Women: Less than 50 mg/dL
Or taking medicine for low HDL cholesterol
- Blood pressure.
130/85 mm Hg or higher, or taking medicine for high blood pressure
- Fasting blood sugar.
100 mg/dL or higher, or taking medicine for high blood sugar
These criteria were developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Other organizations may have different criteria for diagnosis
How is metabolic syndrome treated?
The main goal of treatment is to reduce your risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. The first approaches in treating metabolic syndrome are:
- Weight control.
Being overweight is a major risk factor for CAD. Weight loss lowers LDL cholesterol and reduces all of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.
- Physical activity.
Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for CAD. Regular exercise can help improve cholesterol levels. It can also lower blood pressure, reduce insulin resistance, lower blood sugar levels, and improve heart function.
- Assessing risk category for CAD and diabetes.
Then you and your doctor may discuss other treatments to lower LDL, high blood pressure, or high blood sugar.
Current as of: April 13, 2022
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine & Jennifer Hone MD - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
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